The leaves are a very popular tea in S. America, where they are believed to be effective in lowering blood sugar levels and treating diabetes. The plant is also a . Expert Opin Ther Pat. Feb;28(2) doi: / Epub Dec 8. Bauhinia forficata in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (BF) tea on oxidative stress and liver damage in streptozotocin.
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This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. Diabetic male mice have remained 30 days without any treatment. BF treatment started on day 31 and continued for 21 days as a drinking-water substitute.
Phytochemical analyses identified four phenols compounds. BF treatment normalized all these parameters. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential forficqta involved in liver damage in hyperglycemic conditions. Our results indicated that BF bwuhinia effect could be attributed to its antioxidant capacity, more than a hypoglycemic potential. Historically, basic therapy for treating several diseases includes the use of medicinal plants.
Vegetable species with medicinal power have considered complex mixtures of biologically active products, and usually many of them are responsible for bzuhinia biological properties [ 1 ]. Therefore, many plants considered medicinal have been used in folk bauhniia to treat diabetes mellitus DM [ 2 ]. In Brazil, the tea infusion of BF leaves is an important alternative treatment for people with DM [ 2 ]. The BF genus comprises about species found especially in the tropical regions of the planet [ 3 ].
Besides their possible hypoglycemic potential, considerations about the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of some Bauhinia species have been postulated. For example, extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link and Bauhinia cheilandra showed antidiabetic activity in STZ and alloxan-induced diabetic rats [ 4 — 6 ].
Already, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity was previously demonstrated for Bauhinia forficata Link, Bauhinia racemosa Lam, and Bauhinia variegata [ 7 — 9 ]. However, we did not find in scientific literature studies with mice or rats that investigate the same Bauhinia species that we use here Bauhinia forficata Link subsp.
Biological properties of Bauhinia species have been attributed to its phenolic compounds.
In this context, Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. These characteristics can be extremely important in diseases where there is an increase in oxidative stress, as in DM and its complications. Indeed, chronic hyperglycemia in DM has related to a bigger ROS production and severe oxidative damage in different tissues, including the liver for a review see [ 12 ].
Increased ROS has been known to induce changes in expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase SOD and catalase CATas well as thiol oxidation and lipid peroxidation [ 12 ]. According to Yeo et al.
Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. Labtest Minas Gerais, Brazil supplied commercial kits. Other reagents were obtained from local suppliers. Mobile phase consisted of water containing 0.
Runs were made in triplicate. The reference standard chemical composition for BF tea was established previously by our group, identifying the compounds quercetinO- 2-rhamnosyl rutinoside, kaempferolO- 2-rhamnosyl rutinoside, quercetinO-rutinoside, and kaempferolO-rutinoside [ 1119 ].
Bauhinia forficata in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: a patent review.
All experiments were conducted with the minimum number of animals and in obedience to the guidelines for biomedical research stated by the Brazilian Societies of Experimental Biology. Three-month male Swiss albino mice 30—35 grams were divided into four different groups with six animals for each group:.
STZ was freshly prepared in citrate buffer 0. STZ dose was established, proposed by Animal Models of Diabetic Complications Consortium [ 20 ], in order to induce a severe hyperglycemia in mice. This dose is in accordance with previous studies that investigated the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of other Bauhinia species [ 4 — 689 ].
BF treatment started on day 31 and continued for 21 days in drinking water. After the period of treatment, animals were killed by cardiac puncture. This procedure was performed under enough ether anesthesia to ameliorate mice suffering. Mice livers were removed and carefully washed, and part of them were weighted vauhinia homogenized in forficsta All the biochemical analyses were performed in the same day foricata euthanasia.
Blood was collected in heparinized tubes by cardiac puncture after fasting for 6 hours. Indirect quantification of reactive oxygen species ROS production was determined in S1 samples by evaluation of dichlorofluorescein reactive species DCF-RS levels, proposed by Myhre et al.
The results were stated as DCF fluorescence forficafa, corrected by protein content, and expressed as percentage of control. The results were calculated using a standard curve constructed with malondialdehyde MDA at known concentrations and corrected by protein content.
The results were expressed as nanomoles of MDA per milligram of protein. Protein carbonyl was measured in S1 samples, proposed by Levine et al. The results were calculated using the molar extinction coefficient of DNPH, corrected by protein content, and expressed as nanomoles of carbonyl per milligram of protein. This method is based on the capacity of SOD in inhibiting quercetin autooxidation. The results were corrected by protein content and expressed as unit per milligram of protein.
Fifty percent inhibition was produced by approximately 1. CAT enzyme activity was determined in S1 samples, proposed by Aebi [ 25 ]. The results were corrected by protein content and expressed as nanomoles of PBG per milligram of protein per hour of incubation.
Bauhinia forficata – Useful Tropical Plants
NPSH levels were determined according to Ellman [ 27 ]. The results were calculated in relation to a standard curve constructed with glutathione GSH at known concentrations and corrected by protein content.
The results were expressed as nanomoles of SH per milligram of protein. Bovine serum albumin at known concentrations was used to construct a standard curve.
Western blotting was performed according to Posser et al. Immunoreactive bands were quantified using the Scion Image software and expressed as percentage of untreated controls.
GraphPad prism 6 forfifata was used for statistical analysis and for plotting gauhinia.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Chromatographic profile of B. Chemical compounds identified Peak 1: Diabetic mice had a significant increase in the serum glucose levels, which were not reduced by BF Figure 2. These changes were not modified by BF treatment. BF per se did not affect this parameter Figure 3.
Diabetic mice had a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase AST level Figure 4 a when compared to the control group. This change was not modified by BF treatment. Alanine aminotransferase ALT level Figure 4 b was not changed by any treatment. Furthermore, diabetic mice had an increase in the carbonylated protein levels Figure 5 c that were only partially reduced by BF treatment.
No difference in SOD activity was observed among the groups Figure 6 a. However, the diabetic mice had a significant decrease in CAT activity when compared to the control group. This decrease was attenuated by BF treatment Figure 6 buhinia.
The levels of nonprotein thiol groups NPSH were increased in diabetic mice and BF treatment restores only partially this increase Figure 7 b. In pancreas, an increase in NQO-1 levels was observed, and BF treatment reduce these at levels lower than the control group Figure 9.
No differences in the levels of Nrf2 and HSP70 were observed among the groups in pancreas. Graphical representation of NQO-1 pancreas protein levels b. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. In folk medicine, various species of BF have been used to treat diabetes mellitus DM [ 2 ], especially due to their possible hypoglycemic effect.
Our results show BF tea reduced liver oxidative stress in diabetic mice, although it did not change the glycaemia. In this context, the absence of hypoglycemic action of BF tea may be due to the nonextraction of some compounds in the aqueous fraction infusion or due to absence of kaempferitrin compound kaempferol-3,7-O- r -dirhamnosidepointed out bauhniia responsible for hypoglycemic action in other Bauhinia forfiicata [ 10 ].
However, ALT is localized only in the cellular cytoplasm, whereas AST is cytosolic in a minor portion and mitochondrial in a major portion. Furthermore, AST is highly bauhinja in zone 3 of the hepatic acinus, and damage to this zone may indicate ischemic or toxic events, resulting in greater AST levels [ 31 ]. In case of diabetes, hepatic toxic events may occur in response to an excess in free fatty acids [ 32 ] results of insulin impairment.
Known mechanisms for hepatic toxics events that increase transaminases levels in diabetic state include cell membrane disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, toxin formation, oxidative stress, and recruited inflammatory cells [ 32 ].
We observe an increase in reactive oxygen species ROS and lipid peroxidation levels Figures 5 a and 5 b forvicata, resp. Similarly, TBA-RS assay is a known biomarker used to estimate lipid damage from cells and tissues, and its increased levels are an indirect evidence of high ROS production. These findings reinforce our previously reported antioxidant activity of BF tea even at low concentrations [ 11 ]. The antioxidant activity of BF extracts has been attributed to high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids present in its composition [ 1133 ].
Here, we identify four major compounds Figure 1 that were previously reported using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry LC-ESI-MS [ 1119 ]. Among the chemical constituents identified in our extract, the quercetin and kaempferol derivate have been extensively studied to have antioxidant properties, such as reduction of TBA-RS levels and control of antioxidant response [ 1011 ].
Our results also showed that there is an increase in liver carbonylated protein levels Figure 5 c. Probably, a longer BF treatment might reduce the protein carbonyl levels to control levels.
This is possible whereas carbonylated proteins have a long half-life and take longer to suffer degradation when compared to normal proteins. Concerning liver antioxidant enzymes, we observed a significant decrease in CAT activity in diabetic mice, which was reverted by BF tea treatment Figure 6 b.
No changes were observed in liver SOD activity in diabetic mice. For instance, changes in antioxidant enzymes activities or its return to normal values following a previous decrease may forfidata as a compensatory mechanism in response to a constant exposure to increased oxidative stress, such as those determined by forficataa hyperglycemia.
This could explain the decreases in SOD activity observed by some researchers vauhinia the normal SOD bauhjnia observed by other investigators for a review see [ 12 ]. This occurs due to presence of thiol groups in its structure, which are sensitive to oxidation.
This characteristic explains its use forfiata a good oxidative stress biomarker [ 1314 ]. In diabetic mice, we observed an increase in thiol levels, probably due to a physiological compensatory effect. GSH is a ubiquitous cellular three-peptide antioxidant that acts as an intracellular buffer being responsible for the maintenance of the thiol redox balance [ 35 ].
Furthermore, both STZ and hyperglycemia have been known to increase ROS production [ 12 ], and NQO-1 enzyme plays an important role as a superoxide scavenger that may provide an additional level of protection against ROS toxicity [ 36 ].